Spring seeding of forages

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Late this month (depending on the weather) and on into April provides one of the two preferred times to seed perennial cool-season forages. The other preferred timing for cool-season grasses and legumes is in late summer, primarily the month of August here in Ohio. The relative success of spring vs. summer seeding of forages is greatly affected by the prevailing weather conditions, and so growers have success and failures with each option.Probably the two primary difficulties with spring plantings are finding a good window of opportunity when soils are dry enough before it gets too late, and managing weed infestations that are usually more difficult with spring plantings. The following steps will help improve your chances for successful forage establishment in the spring.Make sure soil pH and fertility are in the recommended ranges. Follow the Tri-state Soil Fertility Recommendations (https://forages.osu.edu/forage-management/soil-fertility-forages). Forages are more productive where soil pH is above 6.0, but for alfalfa it should be 6.5 to 6.8. Soil phosphorus should be at least 15 ppm for grasses and 25 ppm for legumes, while minimum soil potassium in ppm should be 75 plus 2.5 x soil CEC. If seedings are to include alfalfa, and soil pH is not at least 6.5, it would be best to apply lime now and delay establishing alfalfa until late summer (plant an annual grass forage in the interim).2. Plant high quality seed of known varietal source adapted to our region. Planting “common” seed (variety not stated) usually proves to be a very poor investment, yielding less even in the first or second year and having shorter stand life.3. Plant as soon as it is possible to prepare a good seedbed in April. Try to finish seeding by late April in southern Ohio and by the first of May in northern Ohio. Timely April planting gives forage seedlings the best opportunity to get a jump on weeds and to be established before summer stress sets in. Weed pressure will be greater with later plantings, and they will not have as strong a root system developed by early summer when conditions often turn dry and hot.4. Plant into a good seedbed. The ideal seedbed for conventional seedings is smooth, firm, and weed-free. Don’t overwork the soil. Too much tillage depletes moisture and increases the risk of surface crusting. Firm the seedbed before seeding to ensure good seed-soil contact and reduce the rate of drying in the seed zone. Cultipackers and cultimulchers are excellent implements for firming the soil. If residue cover is more than 35% use a no-till drill. No-till seeding is an excellent choice where soil erosion is a hazard. No-till forage seedings are most successful on silt loam soils with good drainage and are more difficult on clay soils or poorly drained soils.5. Plant seed shallow (¼ to ½ inch deep) in good contact with the soil. Stop and check the actual depth of the seed in the field when you first start planting. This is especially important with no-till drills. In my experience, seeding some seed on the surface indicates most of the seed is about at the right depth.6. When seeding into a tilled seedbed, drills with press wheels are the best choice. When seeding without press wheels or when broadcasting seed, cultipack before and after dropping the seed, preferably in the same direction the seeder was driven.7. In fields with little erosion hazard, direct seedings without a companion crop in the spring allows harvesting two or three crops of high-quality forage in the seeding year, particularly when seeding alfalfa and red clover.8. For conventional seedings on erosion prone fields, a small grain companion crop can reduce the erosion hazard and will also help compete with weeds. Companion crops usually increase total forage tonnage in the seeding year, but forage quality will be lower than direct seeded legumes. Take the following precautions to avoid excessive competition of the companion crop with forage seedlings: (i) use early-maturing, short, and stiff-strawed small grain varieties, (ii) plant companion small grains at 1.5-2.0 bu/A, (iii) remove companion crop as early pasture or silage, and (iv) do not apply additional nitrogen to the companion crop.9. During the first 6 to 8 weeks after seeding, scout new seedings weekly for any developing weed or insect problems. Weed competition during the first six weeks is most damaging to stand establishment. Potato leafhopper damage on legumes in particular can be a concern beginning in late May to early June.The first harvest of the new seeding should generally be delayed until early flowering of legumes, unless weeds were not controlled adequately and are threatening to smother the stand. For pure grass seedings, generally harvest after 70 days from planting, unless weeds are encroaching in which case the stand should be clipped earlier to avoid weed seed production.last_img read more

Why Digital Maps Aren’t Ready To Replace Paper

first_imgWhy Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Apple Maps Isn’t The Only Epic FailAs you well know, last year’s introduction of Apple Maps was an epic failure. Missing bridges, improperly placed landmarks, directions to places that never existed and stranded tourists topped the list of Apple Map fails. A life-endangering situation befell a group in Australia when they were following directions to what they had believed to be Mildura, a vibrant city of 30,000 people in Victoria. Instead, they ended up stranded for 24 hours in a national park in the outback wilderness – in 115-degree heat with no food or water. Turns out that Apple Maps plotted the city of Mildura 40 miles away from its actual location.  But Apple can’t be blamed for last week super-duper-epic-digital-mapping fail: The USS Guardian ran aground on a reef in the Philippine Sea. The Tubbataha Reef is an environmentally sensitive natural park, and the Guardian was navigating through the area without the clearance. When officials informed the Guardian that it had entered a restricted area, and would have to be boarded and inspected, the ship replied: “Take it to the U.S. Embassy.” And then it hit the reef and got stuck.No one was injured and no fuel oil leaked, but the damage to the reef may be extensive. And the Navy has decided to scrap the $277 milllion ship, cutting it into three parts to remove it from the reef without further damage. Plus, the U.S. is facing huge fines and an investigation from the Philippine government. So what’s the connection to digital maps?A few days after the incident, the Navy revealed that the digital maps the Guardian used to navigate misplaced the reef by about eight nautical miles, a little more than 9 miles. The Navy has since advised other ships to compare electronic charts to paper ones before following directions.Durable And Valuable Dr. Clough said in an email to ReadWrite that experts and professionals in certain fields, including military personnel, often value paper more than digital mapping software. His study found that while users liked digital maps for planning short and long distance travel, when it came to traveling on foot, paper was preferred due to its durability and portability. Not to say that digital mapping isn’t more than good enough for most applications. But it may be a good idea for users to refrain from putting their complete trust and faith in any mapping app. Having a paper backup plan may be a good idea. Clough pointed out the irony of the common practice of printing out Google Maps as a convenient backup when navigating. He added, “ I think paper is here to stay for the foreseeable future.” A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts Tags:#Google maps#Government#maps christina ortiz With the rise of smartphones, millions of people have tossed away their paper maps, instead relying on GPS and mapping apps on our phones to find a restaurant or plan a road trip. But is that really a good thing?Surprisingly enough, there’s a lot of academic research into the digital versus paper maps issue. Paul Clough, Senior Lecturer in the Information School at the University of Sheffield, conducted one of these  studies and found that, aside from the fact that we still like paper versions of things (books, magazines), we trust paper maps more. Whether it’s because of technical difficulties with apps, or fear of running out of battery power, the usability and reliability of paper maps still fare better than digital. Even if you do look like a freakin’ tourist if you unfold a paper map on a city street. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more

Challenge Yourself to Save Money

first_imgBy Barbara O’Neill, Ph.D., CFP®, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, oneill@aesop.rutgers.eduAside from making a New Year’s resolution, there is perhaps no better time for military families to save money than April. If they are early tax filers, a tax refund may be coming or may have already arrived. In addition, big winter home heating bills are in the rear view mirror and, ideally, lingering holiday credit card bills too.Photo by Steven DepoloWhat’s the best way for military families to save money? There is no one right answer. Automatic payroll deductions work well for many people, For example, they have deposits into a credit union account or Thrift Savings Plan retirement savings automatically taken out of their paycheck, before they spend it. Other people do well saving loose change in a jar and depositing it periodically in a savings account as the jar fills up.A third way to save money is to complete a savings challenge that gradually ramps up deposits. While many people start these challenges during the first full week of January, as a New Year’s resolution, they can be started in April or at any other time. Another option is to make a “catch up deposit” in April, perhaps using tax refund money, and then complete a calendar year challenge from that point forward until the end of December.Below is a description of four different savings challenges and how they operate:The 52-Week Money Challenge– Perhaps the oldest of the money challenges (original source unknown) that are all over social media, especially in January, this challenge begins with a $1 deposit during Week #1. The weekly deposit rises by $1 per week and reaches $52 during the final week of the Challenge (Week #52), with total savings of $1,378. Some people have suggested doing the 52-Week Money Challenge in reverse. Some people have more money in January (e.g., from holiday gifts or a year-end bonus at work) than they do in December, which tends to be a very expensive month for many people with holiday gifts and travel. The “reverse challenge” strategy is also very motivating. After five weeks, you already have $250 saved. A third way to do the 52-Week Money Challenge is to pick an amount each week that you can afford (e.g., $25 one week and $16 the next) and complete the challenge in any order. Tracking forms are available athttp://walton.ifas.ufl.edu/fcs/files/2014/01/52-Week-Money-Challenge.pdfhttps://www.affinityplus.org/Portals/0/Documents/Blog/52Week.pdfhttps://www.lgfcu.org/sites/default/files/docs/52week_challenge.pdfThe 52-Week Youth Money Challenge– I created this challenge for parents to use with their children. See http://www.slideshare.net/BarbaraONeill/52-week-money-challenge-for-youth0315. Weekly savings deposits are 10 weeks each of $1, $2, $3, $4, and $5, resulting in $150 of savings. Week #51 is an optional $25 from birthday gifts and Week #52 is an optional $25 from holiday gifts ($200 total). There is also an option for parents to provide a 50% ($100) match of their child’s savings, resulting in total annual savings of $300.The 15-Week Money Challenge– I created this challenge for high school and college students and adults with short-term financial goals. See http://www.slideshare.net/BarbaraONeill/15-week-college-student-money-challenge0715. The Basic Challenge includes five weeks of $10 savings, five weeks of $20 savings, and five weeks of $30 savings, resulting in a total accumulation of $300. The “Hard Core” Challenge starts with a $10 weekly deposit and ramps up the savings deposit by $5 per week for a final deposit of $80, resulting in a total accumulation of $675. The 18 students in my Fall 2015 Rutgers University Personal Finance class took the challenge as an initial pilot test and collectively saved almost $6,000 over the course of the semester.The $2,500 Savings Challenge– I created this challenge to ramp up the amount saved from the 52-Week Money Challenge. I also like round numbers. Hence, the $2,500 savings goal. See http://www.slideshare.net/BarbaraONeill/50-week-2500-savings-challenge. The challenge begins with a $2 deposit during Week #1. The weekly deposit rises by $2 per week and reaches a high of $98. There are two weeks “off” at a saver’s discretion and a $50 deposit is made during the final week of the Challenge (Week #50), with total savings of $2,500. Like the 52-Week Money Challenge, the $2,500 Savings Challenge can be done forward, backward, or in any order that works for individual savers.Want to save money for future financial goals? Challenge yourself and/or your children to save by completing one of the four savings challenges described above. For more information about the benefits of saving money, visit http://articles.extension.org/pages/8634/financial-security:-saving-and-investing and http://www.americasaves.org/.last_img read more

Bridge gap between rural, urban education: Kakodkar

first_imgThe aim of higher education should be to use local resources and provide students an easy access to knowledge and content, noted nuclear scientist Anil Kakodkar has said.He suggested reducing reliance on foreign education and products, and using more of indigenous resources.Mr. Kakodkar called for bridging the gap between rural and urban education so that students could apply their academic skills in their surroundings.The former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission said universities should focus on skill-based education and give the task of conducting exams to a private agency. “Our syllabus should be based on needs of the society and compatible technology,” he said at a symposium on higher education here. “The aim of higher education should be to use indigenous resources and provide easy access of knowledge and content in the student’s mother tongue,” he said. “We rely on other countries for education and products and think what is imported is the best. This mindset needs to change,” he said.The country cannot develop unless its own resources are used extensively. He said literacy is not just a tool for reading and writing. A literate person should know how to handle devices and must possess digital knowledge. It was not just the government’s responsibility to remove the lacunae in higher education. All stakeholders have to pitch in to bring about a change, he said.last_img read more

This kid was reading a book as Federer beat Nadal in Wimbledon classic. Here’s how the world reacted

first_imgRoger Federer and Rafael Nadal were putting on a spectacular show at the centre court of All England Lawn Tennis Club when they met in the semi-final of Wimbledon 2019.It was the 40th time the two legends of the sport met on the tour and the hype around the Wimbledon 2019 semi-final on Friday hit the roof. 11 years after battling out in a marathon five-setter in the Wimbledon final, Nadal and Federer were at it again in the semi-final. The first set went to a tie-breaker. Nadal made light work of Federer’s challenge in the second. Federer came back and put the pressure on Nadal with his one-handed backhand that was doing wonders in London.It was a gripping semi-final. Friday’s semi-final turned out to be another riveting chapter in the history of #Fedal meetings.However, amid all the frenzy, a kid who was at the stand at Centre Court, was caught nonchalantly reading a book. Even the most entertaining battles between two of the most skillful tennis players failed to attract his attention.As expected, the kid became a hot topic on social media as his gesture on Friday left the internet divided. While some pointed out that not many have the luxury to get tickets for a #Fedal Wimbledon match, quite a few defended the kid.He is reading “Why you shouldn’t read during Federer Nadal clash” ????#Fedal#Wimbledon pic.twitter.com/4wIpOWHByoDèépak (@DeepakB7) July 12, 2019Two greatest players of the sport playing Semi Final Clash in a prestigious Tournament #WimbledonAnd this kid is reading book. What a way to waste a ticket. ??????????????#Wimbledon19 #federervsnadal pic.twitter.com/BaynvxrCDOadvertisementSatwikMathangi (@seven_week) July 12, 2019This kid was reading a book during Nadal V Federer! He should be walked out by security and receive a #Wimbledon life ban. pic.twitter.com/Agb3wGcgNPAsh Williams (@ashwilliams1) July 13, 2019This kid is just casually reading a book at a classic game while two of the greatest tennis players battle each other… Wow!!! That book must be extra interesting!! ????PS: Roger Federer – Rafael Nadal ticket cost $7300.. ?????????? pic.twitter.com/cipxnkmu6VMan Like OneX ???? (@MrOneXMind) July 12, 2019When your parents take you to the stadium to watch Federer vs Nadal Wimbledon semi final but you are a Indian kid and have exams tomorrow.#Wimbledon pic.twitter.com/27UsZDyXBaTroll Sports (@TroIISports) July 12, 2019There’s a kid at #Wimbledon READING A BOOK in the stands of the Federer Nadal match. I repeat, he’s READING A BOOK. I love reading too, kid but come on. This is the Men’s SemifinalsAmy Turek (@amy_turek) July 12, 2019To the kid reading a book while Federer is playing Nadal. Can I have your ticket please?! @Wimbledon #youcantbeserious pic.twitter.com/6JSB6gs9IPJane Race ?? (@MrsJaneRace) July 12, 2019The demand for the semi-final of Wimbledon 2019 between Federer and Nadal was at an all-time high. The 2nd week tickets that are priced at £185 were sold for up to £7,209, according to The Daily Express.Hey everybody who’s pissed off at the Indian kid for reading during the Federer-Nadal semifinal, fuck you. Maybe he didn’t want to be there and his folks made him go. Maybe the book really is more interesting to him than two guys knocking a ball around. Give him a break.Sumant (@sumants) July 13, 2019One kid read a book at a Federer-nadal match. People (who perhaps checked their phones 240 times during the match) passing judgementSiddhartha Vaidyanathan (@sidvee) July 13, 2019Federer went on to win the semi-final in 4 sets. He came back swiftly from a second-set loss to the take the match 7-6 (4), 1-6, 6-3, 6-4 and set up a final clash with Novak Djokovic.Federer said the Wimbledon semi-final win over Nadal is going to be one of his favourites matches.”It’s always very, very cool to play against Rafa here, especially (since we) haven’t played in so long,” the second seed said.”Coming out of the gates, we were both playing very well. Then the climax at the end with the crazy last game, some tough rallies there. It had everything at the end, which was great, I guess. I’m just relieved it’s all over at this point.”It’s definitely, definitely going to go down as one of my favourite matches to look back at because it’s Rafa, it’s at Wimbledon, the crowds were into it, great weather.”Also Read | Federer played well, he deserves it: Nadal on Wimbledon semi-final defeatAlso See:last_img read more

Last Greyhound Bus leaves Dawson Creek

first_imgDAWSON CREEK, B.C. – A mix of public transportation services have already started to fill the gap as Greyhound Canada ends service in Western Canada.Greyhound Service to Fort St. John and Fort Nelson ended June 1, but service was maintained into Dawson Creek from Edmonton until Tuesday.The national motor coach operator is being replaced by a mix of provincial government-subsidized services, Indigenous-owned bus lines, locally owned startups, flexible fleets of shuttle buses and a scattering of formal and informal ride-sharing services. In our region, the Province created the BC Bus to serve parts of Northern B.C. after Greyhound pulled out, but as of today service between our area of the Province of Alberta will be non-existent.Red Arrow in Alberta has already started to operate on the route between Grande Prairie and Edmonton but at this point hasn’t announced any plans to extend service into northeast B.C.last_img read more

Twelve minutes of yoga naturopathy can reverse loss of osteoporotic bone Doctor

first_imgNew Delhi: Twelve minutes yoga, naturopathy regimen can reverse the osteoporotic bones loss, informs doctors at public lecture at Safdarjung Hospital. “Yoga can be an effective tool to prevent the loss of the bone density with affects every third women in the city,” said doctors.”There has been adequate research on impact of ‘Yoga’ on all muscle and orthopedic ailment,’ said Dr Ramesh Kumar, Director, Central Institute of Orthopedics, Safdarjung hospital. He further added that sedentary lifestyle has made prone to the bone ailments, as every one need to be cautious about their diet and naturopathy (especially sun bath for 20 mins everyday) can put these disorder in bay. Speaking at the Public Lecture on Prevention of Osteoporosis, in Safdarjung Hospital, Dr Sujata George, Consultant-Physician, Yoga, said that there has been adequate research on impact of Yoga on osteoporosis. Yoga is also impactful in knee and joint pain and in backache. “Yoga helps in retaining bone density and it also helps to build and maintain bone mass. Yogic exercises place stress on the bones, which forces your body to build up more bone minerals. Yoga increases bone mineral density which decreases the risk of developing osteoporosis,” added Dr George. The doctors said that performing Yoga exercises such as Tadasana, Trikonasana, Vrikshasana and Suryanamaskar help not only in prevention of various orthopedic ailments but also help in recovery after of an orthopedic injury. This was evident at the lecture when a patient affected with backache performed these asanas. Prof Kumar added, “Yoga has been in our culture for years but there has been a big gap its adoption. Western countries like US have seriously adopted Yoga which is known as a trend setter in surgery, medicine and research. So, there is an influence of Yoga on health.” Prof Jugal Kishore, Director and HOD, Department of Community Medicine, Safdarjung Hospital, said that osteoporosis not only affects women but men as well. Men and women suffer fractures easily due to osteoporosis. This impacts quality of life of affected persons and their family. “Osteoporosis is related to genetic issues. Persons affected by osteoporosis are prone to fractures. Women whose uterus is taken out are also likely to be affected with osteoporosis. Children who consume steroids may also suffer with osteoporosis. Use of alcohol and smoking and people with rheumatoid arthritis are prone to the disease,” explained Dr Kishore.last_img read more

Under Yuva initiative Delhi Police to train transgenders

first_imgNew Delhi: Taking the Yuva initiative to another level, the Delhi Police will impart vocational skills to transgenders. According to police, on April 15, eight transgenders who were found begging on the street were counselled by the police team regarding the vocational courses in Madhu Vihar police station.Joint Commissioner of Police (Southern Range) Devesh Srivastava said that they are trying to bring them in the mainstream. “In the past also we have counselled them. Our main aim is to make sure they left begging and live a dignified life,” said Joint CP. Also Read – After eight years, businessman arrested for kidnap & murderDelhi Police tweeted,”It’s never too old, never too bad and never too late, to start from scratch once again. 8 transgenders counseled and enrolled into self employment program. #CreatingEqualOpportunities under #YUVA initiative by @DelhiPolice.” A special Community Policing Scheme ‘YUVA’ launched by Delhi Police, keeping in mind the problems of the youth in Delhi. YUVA aims to wean adults and underprivileged children, who, for want of proper education and sports facilities, tend to take to crime. Delhi Police takes initiatives like organizing sports activities, painting workshops, vocational training etc to channelize the underprivileged children. Recently in Outer North district, more than 700 Yuvas trained at this centre attended the Kaushal Mela and Rozgar Mela and after interviews, more than 200 Yuvas were offered placement on the spot. Besides, more than 500 Yuvas from all the 8 police stations of Outer-North Distt also attended the function for joining the training.last_img read more

Khadija Ryadi receives 2013 United Nations Human Rights Prize

first_imgNew York (UN) – Former president of the Moroccan human rights association (AMDH) Khadija Ryadi received, on Tuesday in New York, the 2013 United Nations Human Rights Prize. The Prize was handed by deputy UNSG Jan Eliasson to Ryadi along with other recipients during a ceremony at the UN headquarters on the occasion of the commemoration of the Human Rights Day.Ryadi is known to be at the forefront in the fight against impunity, full gender equality and freedom of expression, said on Friday the UN selection committee which revealed the names of the award winners. The Moroccan activist is the coordinator of a network of twenty-two non-governmental organizations defending human rights in Morocco, it added.last_img read more

More On The Rate Of Domestic Violence Arrests Among NFL Players

In July, I wrote a piece titled “The Rate of Domestic Violence Arrests Among NFL Players,” which has been getting a lot of attention recently — some of it missing the point.I based the analysis in my article on USA Today’s NFL Arrests Database, combined with data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ Arrest Data Analysis Tool and some historical data gleaned from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and a variety of BJS reports on domestic violence. The main points I made were:For most crimes, NFL players have extremely low arrest rates relative to national averages.Their relative arrest rate for domestic violence is much higher than for other crimes.Although the arrest rate for domestic violence may appear low relative to the national average for 25- to 29-year-old men, it is probably high relative to NFL players’ income level (more than $75,000 per year) and poverty rate (0 percent).But the article has been cited by a number of people to support the proposition that the NFL does not have an unusually high domestic violence rate. While I think this is a fair characterization of my intermediate results — the arrest rate I noted was 55.4 percent of the national average for 25- to 29-year-old men as suggested by the USA Today arrest data and rough number of players in the NFL — it’s misleading when taken out of context.Let’s be more explicit about the different assumptions that can affect that bottom-line comparison. For that analysis, I generally tried to lean toward assumptions favorable to the NFL, with the intention of showing that, even under those assumptions, the NFL appeared to have a “downright extraordinary” arrest rate for domestic violence.But there are still a lot of unknowns in the data and lot of choices to be made about what exactly we’re comparing to what.Reliability of arrest dataA lot of readers, commenters, emailers, tweeters, media, etc., have questioned the USA Today NFL arrest data. They’re right to be skeptical. There’s a good chance the arrest data is incomplete — particularly when it comes to marginal players who are only attached to the NFL briefly.When I wrote that piece, I was concerned about both over- and under-inclusion: The pool of NFL players who would pop up in the database might be even larger than the estimate based on roster limits (because some players come and go, and players are frequently dropped and replaced throughout the year), but it might also miss some players whose arrests flew under the radar.I hand-sampled a number of cases and found that they appeared to include many marginal players with minimal attachment to the league. With the NFL being so intensely followed, I thought the USA Today data set was probably pretty comprehensive.But some readers have made some good cases for why the arrest count the database produces could be low.On the pure data-collection level, I’ve corresponded with an enterprising reader who compared the frequency of arrests in the USA Today data for players with more games played vs. those with few games played. He found the first group had a much higher arrest rate. From this, he concluded that the database was probably missing arrests for lesser-known players, and he determined that basing the arrest rate on an assumption of 53 players per team (rather than the 80 players per team I used) was the most accurate approach (only coincidentally corresponding to the number of players on the roster during the year).His case seemed strong to me but not conclusive: It’s possible that marginally attached players are arrested at a lower rate. For example, marginally attached players may be younger (unsigned rookies) or older (borderline veterans) than typical players, and thus less likely to have families (younger) or be aged out of the most likely group to commit domestic violence (older). Additionally, we don’t know what’s driving the NFL’s overall domestic violence arrest rate, and I can imagine plausible scenarios in which regular players are more likely to commit and/or get arrested for the offense.Another potential problem, as several readers pointed out, is that virtually any NFL arrest data may understate the equivalent arrest rate in a less privileged population. In other words, NFL players who are involved in domestic violence incidents could be better at avoiding arrests than the general public. Relatedly, it’s possible there have been arrests that were either avoided or kept off the media’s radar because of team and/or league machinations.Whether any of those possibilities are likely or not, we should be explicit as to how our position on them affects our results.An appropriate pool for comparisonIf we want a bottom-line NFL vs. X number, the pool you use for X is obviously quite meaningful. But it’s difficult to figure out which pool we should be comparing to, and even if we do know what pool we want to use, figuring out their arrest rate (especially for domestic violence crimes) can be quite difficult.In my article, I primarily compare NFL arrest rates to arrest rates for 25- to 29-year-old men, and then I compared their arrest rate for domestic violence to their arrest rates for other crimes (it’s about four times higher). While we don’t have arrest data broken down by income, we do have such breakdowns for victimization rates (based on BJS survey data). I compared the relative domestic violence victimization rate for people from households making $75,000 or more to both the overall domestic violence victimization rate (it’s 39 percent as high) and rate for ages 20 to 34 (20 percent as high). It’s impossible to compare this directly to the relative NFL arrest rates with precision, but at least it gives us some benchmark for how income level may affect domestic violence incidents.In addition to inherent murkiness of trying to compare across different types of data, there are a few other possible problems with the $75,000 or more per year comparison.First, NFL players have a number of advantages that your typical member of a household making $75,000 and up each year may not. That’s the highest income group I had data for, but NFL players are typically wealthier than that. NFL players spend a good portion of the year in an extremely structured environment. They have extremely low rates of drug and alcohol abuse (especially relative to arrest rates for drug and alcohol-related crimes), and alcohol and drugs tend to be big risk factors for domestic violence.On the other hand, NFL players didn’t necessarily have the advantages that a lot of $75,000-and-up earners do. NFL players may be more likely than those earners to have come from difficult backgrounds, or to have experienced or observed abuse in their families, and in general to have missed out on the privileges associated with coming from a wealthier background.Finally, there are some differences in the data that we don’t know enough about to say what their effect might be, such as:Are victims from higher-income households more or less likely to make police reports that lead to arrests?How does the extreme wealth disparity between NFL players and their domestic partners affect the power dynamics that may lead to more or fewer arrests?Note: None of this has to be the case, and I haven’t studied these factors or their effects on criminality. But they are questions that affect our assumptions, and affect what type of comparison we should be making and how we should interpret it.Even if we could settle on a perfectly representative pool for comparison, getting even approximate figures for each group is extremely difficult. For example, as I noted in the original article, the BJS’s Intimate Partner Violence reports don’t include breakdowns by income anymore. So we have to make reasonable estimates based on several related numbers. This process has a lot of wiggle room in it as well, so we should be clear to look at what kinds of proxies lead to what kinds of results.Different combinations of assumptionsWith so much murkiness in both our data and our aims, the best thing to do is to look at a range of assumptions and see whether there are patterns that are apparent independent of such choices.Let’s first combine the possible issues with the USA Today data and represent them as a single number — which we’ll call “percentage of arrests captured by USA Today data” — representing its completeness with regards to actual arrests, as well as arrests that were otherwise avoided.Likewise, let’s combine the issues about comparison groups into a single percentage representing the bottom-line arrest rate of our comparable population (whatever it might be) relative to our 25- to 29-year-old average. In other words, we’re using one metric to represent each group by our best estimate for its relative arrest rate (which we can compare to benchmarks).Then we combine these two metrics with the information we have (NFL Arrest Rates in USA Today database, approximate number of NFL players and arrest rates for the general population), like so:We calculate the known NFL arrest rate and scale it to per 100,000 by taking the NFL arrests per year in the database, multiplied by 100,000, and divided by the number of NFL players per year (approximately 2,560).We divide this by the “percentage of arrests captured by USA Today data” (by assumption, per above).We gather data on the known national arrest rate for 25- to 29- year-olds, which is per 100,000.We divide this by our estimated relative arrest rate of a comparable population (by assumption, per above).Finally, we calculate the ratio between 2) and 4) and subtract 100 percent — this tells us how our estimated NFL arrest rate compares to the rate we estimate for a comparable population.Now we can chart the result of this calculation for given values of A and B as heat maps. Even if we assume extremely incomplete arrest data, the NFL’s overall arrest rate is still very low relative to the national average for its age range. But if we hold the NFL to an extremely high standard, we can still find its arrest rate to be subpar.I’ve used the same color scheme for both of these (100 percent = white). So it should be obvious that the NFL’s doing much worse with domestic violence arrests than with arrests overall.Note that the difference between assumptions can be an order of magnitude or more. Under a favorable set of assumptions, the NFL looks better than average; under an unfavorable set of assumptions, it’s doing terribly.For example, if you compare NFL players only to the national average for 25- to 29-year-old men, and you assume that the USA Today database is pretty much complete, you arrive at the 55.4 percent figure.On the other hand, if you assume that the NFL’s domestic violence arrest rate should be proportional to the overall arrest rate, you can see that the NFL has a “domestic violence problem,” whether the USA Today data is complete or not. This was essentially the scenario I was leading to in my initial article. read more