One should be on red alert for an engineered price declineIt was a zero day in gold on Friday, as the metal traded within a five dollar price range for the entire session, with a tiny rally into the close of electronic trading. Gold closed on its ‘high’ of the day, such as it was.The low and high ticks aren’t worth the effort of looking up.Gold closed on Friday at $1,339.00 spot, up $3.70 from Thursday. Net volume was almost invisible at 67,000 contracts.The same can be said for silver, as it traded in about a 10 cent range all day long. The highs and lows weren’t worth looking up, either.Silver closed yesterday at $21.445 spot, up 3 cents from Thursday. Volume, net of July and August, was a pretty beefy 32,000 contracts, which is almost half of gold’s net volume. Something under 20,000 contracts would have been closer to normal.As I’ve mentioned a few time over the last few months, silver’s net volume is now substantially larger that it ever used to be—and I’m wondering why that’s the case, especially relative to gold.Platinum traded flat as well, but palladium had a down/up rally that started at 10 a.m. in Zurich—bottomed shortly after the Comex open—and was back to a few bucks above unchanged shortly after 12 o’clock noon in New York. Platinum closed unchanged—and palladium closed up two bucks. Here are the charts. The overbought conditions in both metals has grown more extreme in the last couple of days.I’d like to point out one more time that the Commercial net short in silver is at, or very close to, it’s extreme all-time high of the last five years—and one should be on red alert for an engineered price decline at some point in the not-to-distant future. My great concern, as I mentioned in the discussion regarding the COT Report, is that with silver is currently sitting at $21.45 spot—and only up about $2.75 from its $18.75 low of the first week of June—one has to wonder how low will JPMorgan et al be able to drive the price if they really put their shoulders into it as, once again, they ring the cash register on the technical funds for fun, profit and price management.I know it hasn’t happened yet—and it’s entirely possible that we could move higher from here for a while—but the COT numbers, using past as prologue, indicate otherwise. All we can do is wait it out.That’s all I have for today. Enjoy what’s left of your weekend—and I’ll see you here on Tuesday. The dollar index closed in New York late on Thursday afternoon at 80.12—and didn’t do much until 9 a.m. BST in London. At that point it dipped down to 80.04 before being rescued up to the 80.23 level at 9 a.m. in New York. It faded a small handful of basis points into the close, finishing he Friday session at 80.19—up 7 basis points from Thursday.I was happy to see the gold stocks bounce back, but they looked like they rallied strongly for the same reason that they got sold off on Thursday—and that was no reason that I could see. The HUI closed up 2.35%.Ditto for the silver equities, as they gained back everything they lost on Thursday, plus a hair more—as Nick Laird’s Intraday Silver Sentiment Index closed up 3.07%.Here’s the long-term Silver 7 Index to show how little ground we’ve actually gained during the current rally.The CME Daily Delivery Report drew a blank yesterday, as no gold or silver contracts were posted for delivery on Tuesday.There were no reported changes in GLD on Friday—and as of 6:01 p.m. EDT yesterday evening, there were no reported changes in SLV, either.There was no sales report from the U.S. Mint on Friday.There a little bit of movement in gold over at the Comex-approved depositories on Thursday, as 3,000 troy ounces were reported received—and 225.4 troy ounces were shipped out.However, it was a monster day in silver, as 336,763 troy ounces were reported received—and a whopping 1,942,290 troy ounces were shipped out the door. The link to that activity is here.And now for yesterday’s Commitment of Traders Report. I said in The Wrap in Friday’s column—“Eye-balling the above charts its a tough call on both metals, but basically unchanged wouldn’t surprise me.”I wasn’t even close.In silver, the Commercial net short position blew out by an astonishing 6,063 contracts, or 30.3 million ounces. The Commercial net short position is now up to 290 million troy ounces, a position we haven’t been at since December 2012 when silver was $34 the ounce. Now we’re back at an almost 5-year high in the Commercial net short position—and silver is only $21 the ounce. One wonders how low JPMorgan et al will drive the price when they pull the pin on the technical funds this time around?Ted said that this reporting week’s action was, once again, the technical funds buying back short positions and going long—and in the face of that, the raptors sold another 2,800 long contracts, the Big 4 [read JPMorgan] increased their short position by 2,500 contracts—and the 5 through 8 largest traders added about 800 contracts to their short position. Ted pegs JPMorgan’s short side corner in the Comex silver market at 17,500 Comex contracts, or 87.5 million troy ounces.Here’s a chart that Nick Laird sent my way yesterday evening. It shows the long and short positions of all three groups of traders in the COT Report. Looking only at the center chart, you can see the the Non-Commercial/technical funds in red—and the the Commercials in blue—and the thin black line is the positions of the Nonreportable contract holders that’s visible behind the red bars.Just looking at the Non-Commercial category, in five weeks they’ve gone from a net long position of about 1,000 contracts all the way to a new record high of 48,000 contracts—and for what, dear reader? A lousy two dollar plus move in the price of silver on the chart directly above it.If you look at the top price chart, we had a similar two dollar move in February and March on much smaller trading action between the technical funds and the Commercials. And if you go back to August 2012, the price of silver rallied to $34 from $27 by the first week of October—a seven dollar move. This time—and in a much shorter time period, only five weeks—and on bigger buying volume by the technical funds, silver is only up two bucks and change.In his weekly review on Saturday, July 5, silver analyst Ted Butler had this to say about the above situation: “I have come to believe that the main cause behind the diminishing nature of progressive silver rallies is a willful intent on the part of the regulators and key commercials on the COMEX to snuff out any silver rally before it generates sufficient investment demand that could lead to a physical shortage. More than any alternative explanation that possibly comes to mind, I believe there is a conspiracy between the CFTC and other parts of the U.S. Government, along with crooked private interests on the COMEX, to not let silver go too far on the upside. Further, while this may also be true to some extent in gold, it is in silver where the situation is most critical.”By the way, Ted’s essay “The Silver Conspiracy” will be posted in the clear sometime next week—and you can rest assured that it will appear in this column the moment it shows up in the public domain.There was also deterioration in gold in the COT Report as well, as the Commercial net short position increased by 5,548 contracts, or 554,800 troy ounces. The Commercial net short position now stands at 16.60 million troy ounces. Once again it was the technical funds/Non-commercial traders that covered shorts and went long—and the Commercials of all stripes sold longs, or went short against them. Ted said the JPMorgan sold another 1,000 contracts of its long-side corner in the Comex futures market—and is now down to 2.5 million troy ounces.You’d have to go back to March of 2013 to see the Commercials holding this big a net short position in gold. It was from that point in March of last year where gold got clocked for $400 the ounce by the end of July. One wonders what fate “da boyz” have in store for us in gold going forward? One would have to presume that it would be similar to the fate that awaits silver.By the way, the small traders in the Nonreportable category never have any influence over the price. It’s the interplay between the mechanically-driven technical funds and the Commercials that drives the price up and down as moving averages are broken in either direction.Here’s the equivalent chart for gold that I posted just above for silver.And, without doubt, that big out-of-the-blue rally in both gold and silver in London trading on their Thursday morning will have driven the Commercial net short positions in both these metals to new extremes, but we’ll have to wait until next Friday to find out just how bad it was.I have a decent number of stories for you today—and I hope you can find time in what’s left of your weekend to read the article that interest you the most.With silver prices so low—and at or below the primary cost of production, there has rarely been a more inopportune time for any producer to be hedging and locking in current prices. This is confirmed by the fact that silver (and gold) miner hedging is at multi-decade lows. Yet the concentrated silver short position of the eight largest traders (all commercials) on the COMEX is near its highest level in years, meaning that the concentrated short position is not legitimate since it doesn’t involve bona fide hedging.At the same time, the concentrated short position of the 8 largest COMEX shorts is near record highs, JPMorgan’s share has rarely been lower, according to the COTs. The only explanation that makes sense is that those involved in the conspiracy are trying to take the attention and heat off of the crooks at JPMorgan by shifting some of the short position from JPMorgan and placing it in other large short accounts. There is no legitimate reason why the 5 thru 8 largest traders on the COMEX hold an all-time record short position at a time of record low miner hedging. As distasteful as I’ve always found the word “conspiracy” to be, I can’t find a more apt description for what has transpired on the COMEX. – Silver analyst Ted Butler: 09 July 2014Today’s pop “blast from the past” dates from this American Rock Band‘s 1981 triple platinum album “Paradise Theatre”. The group—and the tune—are instantly recognizable—and the link is here.Today’s classical blast from the past is courtesy of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. For me, my two favourite instruments are the piano and violin—and the vast majority of the well-known concerto repertoire of the last two hundred years or so, was written for these two instruments. If those two instruments, along with all their associated music vanished from the face of the earth overnight, my next favourite instrument is the oboe. Mozart’s Oboe Concerto in C major, K314 is probably the most well known.It was originally composed in spring or summer of 1777 for oboist Giuseppe Ferlendis (1755–1802) from Bergamo, then reworked by the composer as a concerto for flute in D major in 1778. The concerto is a widely-studied piece for both instruments—and is one of the more important concerti for the oboe.There are no credits given in this youtube.com clip, but it’s quite good. It’s the only complete performance I could find—and the link is here.There’s nothing to discuss regarding yesterday’s price action in either gold or silver. The only thing that I continue to note is that the high trading volume in silver continues unabated, regardless of the price action.Here are the 6-month charts for both gold and silver updated with yesterday’s price and volume data.
Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. July 21, 2017 The new feature inside Amazon’s iPhone app lets you follow specific categories and people, making it easy to buy things you find. Add to Queue Image credit: Amazon via PCMag Amazon Amazon Spark Is a Pinterest-Like Shopping Social Network Next Article Angela Moscaritolo Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals As if you don’t already buy enough stuff on Amazon, the ecommerce giant just added a new Pinterest-like feature to its iPhone app aimed at helping you “find more of what you like.”Dubbed Spark, the new shopping social network lets you follow specific categories and people. Of course, Amazon has made it super easy to buy things there, too.To access Spark, tap the hamburger icon (three parallel horizontal lines) in the Amazon iPhone app, select Programs and Features, then tap Spark. The first time you visit, you’ll select a few of your interests: things like books, style and fashion, food, technology, do it yourself (DIY), home décor, beauty, recipes, video games and women’s fashion, for instance.From there, Spark will create a “feed of personalized content from other Amazon customers with similar interests as you.” If you see something you like, just tap the product link or shopping bag icon to buy it.You can also create posts to share a specific product or story, and “interact with people by commenting or smiling on their posts.” We assume “smiling” on someone’s post is basically like adding a heart or thumbs up.Anyone in the U.S. with the Amazon iPhone app can look at posts on Spark, but you’ll need to be a paid Prime member to contribute your own.Just keep in mind that whatever you do on Spark is pretty much public. “Anyone can view your posts, comments, the interests you follow and see your Amazon Profile,” Amazon said in its Spark FAQs. Your profile displays customer reviews you’ve written but does not show your purchasing or browsing history. This story originally appeared on PCMag 2 min read –shares Reporter Register Now »
Tinder Suspends Co-Founder Over Sexual Harassment Claims Add to Queue Former Staff Writer Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. –shares Next Article Tinder’s former vice president of marketing, Whitney Wolfe, is suing the company she says she co-founded on charges of sexual harassment and sex discrimination. According to court documents filed yesterday, Wolfe alleges that Tinder’s CMO, Justin Mateen, called her a whore at a company event in the presence of CEO Sean Rad.And after having played a pivotal role in the company’s founding, including coining its name, Wolfe says her status as a co-founder was revoked because Mateen believed having a young female in the role made “the company seem like a joke.”Tinder’s parent companies, IAC and Match.com, are named as co-defendants in the lawsuit.Related: Oh, Snap — Evan Spiegel ‘Mortified’ by Vulgar Frat EmailsCourt documents also reveal incinerating text messages between Mateen and Wolfe, who briefly dated. “You prefer to social climb middle aged Muslim pigs that stand for nothing,” Mateen wrote after they’d broken up.In response, Wolfe repeatedly asked Mateen to stop harassing her. “I am trying to do my job and this is very out of control,” she said.In lieu of the leaked texts, Mateen was immediately “suspended pending an ongoing internal investigation,” according to Tinder. “We unequivocally condemn these messages, but believe that Ms. Wolfe’s allegations with respect to Tinder and its management are unfounded,” the company said in a statement to USA Today.Additional allegations include that Rad repeatedly ignored Wolfe’s complaints about being harassed, and bullied her into resigning.Related: New Dating App Startup Aims to Be the ‘Thinking Person’s Tinder’She also alleges that he sent her a text message “depicting IAC chairman Barry Diller as a penis.”And after leaving the company, Wolfe says she tearfully recounted the abuses she suffered to Sam Yagan, CEO of Match.com, who was “unmoved” and “didn’t feel compelled to do anything in response.”Wolfe is asking for lost back pay, lost fringe benefits, lost equity and damages for emotional distress and pain suffering.”I had hoped this would be resolved confidentially, but after months of failed attempts, I have decided to pursue this suit,” she said in a statement to USA Today.Related: GitHub Co-Founder Quits Following Harassment Allegations 3 min read Legal Geoff Weiss Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals July 1, 2014 Register Now »
Source:http://www.neuromed.it/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 12 2018While the heavy negative effects of high consumption are confirmed, those who drink in moderation resort less to the hospital than teetotalersA study of the Department of Epidemiology and Prevention of I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed (Pozzilli, Italy), in collaboration with the Department of Nutrition of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (Boston), highlights that people who consume alcohol moderately (one glass of wine a day), in the general framework of Mediterranean diet principles, have a lower risk of being hospitalized compared to heavier drinkers, but also to the teetotallers.The research, published in the scientific journal Addiction, involved 21,000 participants in the Moli-sani epidemiological study, followed for over 6 years. During this period, their drinking habits were related to their number of hospital admissions.Related StoriesRecreational marijuana users tend to drink more alcohol, medicinal users drink lessExcess grey matter in the brain can predict escalating drinking behavior in teensPeople use executive control processes to ignore cues that signal something rewarding”We observed – says Simona Costanzo, first author of the paper, who spent a period of research in this field at Harvard University, thanks to a grant from the Veronesi Foundation – that a heavy consumption of alcohol is associated with a higher probability of hospitalization, especially for cancer and alcohol-related diseases. This confirms the harmful effect of excessive alcohol drinking on the health. On the other hand, those who drink in moderation present a lower risk of hospitalization for all causes and for cardiovascular diseases compared to lifetime abstainers and former drinkers “.”The data on hospitalizations – comments Licia Iacoviello, Head of the Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology of I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed and professor of Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Insubria in Varese – is very important in relation to the impact of alcohol on public health. Hospital admissions, in fact, represent not only a serious problem for people, but they have also a strong impact on National health systems. Our study confirms how much excess alcohol can weigh on healthcare facilities, underlining the urgent need of managing the problem, but it also confirms and extends our previous observations according to which moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduction in mortality risk, regardless of the type of disease”.”We are absolutely not saying – underlines Ken Mukamal Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School – that any teetotaler should start drinking to improve his/her health. However, this research reaffirms that the effects of alcohol consumption cannot be reduced to a single catchphrase or punchline. This very comprehensive study clearly shows that we need to consider its health effects based upon both dose and disease”.
Source:https://benthamscience.com/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 20 2018Stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) are a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. However, over the past several decades because of advances in medicines (thrombolytic agents, antiplatelet drugs, beta blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and approaches to restore tissue perfusion (percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiopulmonary bypass), the mortality of MI has declined dramatically.Related StoriesEmpa researchers aim to fight unwanted biofilmsNutritional supplements offer no protection against cardiovascular diseases, say researchersNeuroscientists control visual behavior of a mouse with single-cell precisionThese treatments have been known to reduce acute myocardial ischemic injury and to limit MI size when experiments and were done on animals. However, reperfusion can itself amplify cell injury and death; this is known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Several studies have uncovered complex mechanisms of cardiomyocyte damage after the process of reperfusion, and efforts are ongoing to search for therapeutic targets to reduce I/R. One of the most observations is is the elevation of Ca2+ ions that takes place at intracellular and mitochondrial levels during reperfusion. This increase in Ca2+ predisposes patients to mitochondrial failure, hyper-contracture and proteolysis, eventually leading the cell toward necrotic or apoptotic death. The channels of the sarcolemma (L-Type Ca2+ channels and sodium/calcium exchangers), the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA ATPase) and ryanodine receptors, SOCE(store-operated calcium entry), lysosomes and others, which are modified by I/R injury are responsible for these enormous alterations in cytosolic Ca2+ levels.This review describes different biochemical pathways that lead to Ca2+ overload that causes I/R. Advances in therapeutic strategies oin light of recent discoveries are also discussed.
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Dec 20 2018Scientists have taken a key step toward improving an emerging class of treatments for Parkinson’s disease.The advance could markedly improve a next generation of therapies for the condition, which affects around one in 350 people in the UK.It could aid development of the promising treatment – known as cell replacement therapy – which was first used in a clinical trial this year. Experts hope the approach, which involves transplanting healthy cells into parts of the brain damaged by Parkinson’s, could alleviate symptoms such as tremor and balance problems.The latest development addresses limitations in the treatment in which, over time, transplanted tissue can acquire signs of disease from nearby cells.Related StoriesExciting study shows how centrioles center the process of cell divisionStudy: Megakaryocytes play an important role in cell migrationNanoparticles used to deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cellResearchers at the University of Edinburgh have created stem cells – which have the ability to transform into any cell type – that are resistant to developing Parkinson’s.They snipped out sections of DNA from human cells in the lab using advanced technology known as CRISPR. In doing so, they removed a gene linked to the formation of toxic clumps, known as Lewy bodies, which are typical of Parkinson’s brain cells.In lab tests, the stem cells were transformed into brain cells that produce dopamine – a key brain chemical that is lost in Parkinson’s – in a dish. The cells were then treated with a chemical agent to induce Lewy bodies.Cells that had been gene-edited did not form the toxic clumps, compared with unedited cells, which developed signs of Parkinson’s.Researchers say the advance could be most beneficial to younger patients living with Parkinson’s and those with an aggressive form of the condition, but that the advance had to be tested in human trials.The study, published in the European Journal of Neuroscience, was funded by the UK Centre for Mammalian Synthetic Biology, the pharmaceutical company UCB Biopharma and The Cure Parkinson’s Trust.Dr Tilo Kunath of the Medical Research Council’s Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh, who led the study, said: “We know that Parkinson’s disease spreads from neuron-neuron, invading healthy cells. This could essentially put a shelf life on the potential of cell replacement therapy. Our exciting discovery has the potential to considerably improve these emerging treatments.”Dr Simon Stott, Deputy Director of Research for the Cure Parkinson’s Trust said, “Cell replacement therapy represents one experimental approach to regenerative medicine for people with Parkinson’s. This new research by Dr Tilo Kunath and his team at the University of Edinburgh provides another advancement in the development of this treatment. The Cure Parkinson’s Trust is thrilled to be associated with this inspiring and innovative research” Source:https://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2018/stem-cell-approach-could-aid-parkinson-s-fight
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 21 2019Nerve growth factor has been playing an important role in development of adult neurobiology. This is because of the regulatory functions that it possesses on survival, growth and differentiation of nerve cells in both of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Nerve growth factor plays an action in survival and growth of peripheral, sympathetic and sensory neurons along on numerous amounts of brain neurons. As far as neuropathic factors are concerned, NGF is the first discovered member of a family collectively indicated as neurotrophins. This includes, brain derived neurophin 4/5, neurotrophin-3 and nuerotrophic factor. For the sake of survival and differentiation of much selected population of peripheral neurons, NGF was discovered. Therefore, many studies took place to identify the role of purified NGF just for the sake of prevention of deaths of NGF-receptive cells. After all the studies, it was revealed to the researchers that NGF possesses good amount of therapeutic properties for diseases like, cutaneous ulcer, corneal ulcers, glaucoma, retinal maculopathy, Retinitis Pigmentosa along with optic gliomas and brain traumas.Therefore, the researches and studies that took place on NGF showed new routes for the diagnostics along with that allowed safe amount of dosages to the effected patients. This thing widened the spectrum of therapy with the help of NGF based therapy. Source:https://benthamscience.com/
Citation: Three scenarios show we have to think carefully about ethics in designing smart cities (2018, March 16) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-scenarios-carefully-ethics-smartcities.html Provided by The Conversation But there are major ethical challenges that centre on fears about the privacy of information that is provided. The perception that data will be paternally used in targeted community interventions is also an issue.At the Indonesian-Australian Digital Forum in Jakarta in January, participants analysed the sustainability of using citizen reports to collect data on malaria. This information sharing can potentially benefit communities by targeting public health services in areas of need. But it also creates stigma and privacy concerns when individuals are known within their community as disease carriers. Is there any opportunity to consider a person’s consent?Big Data certainly creates opportunities to reduce health disparities. But how many benevolent government interventions engage targeted citizens in the development process? Focusing on the citizenThe examples we use above are very near-term realities. The possibilities and problems of Big Data mean designers require a new type of intelligence that exists between technology and the humanities. As technologies become more sophisticated the designer holds a key role in customising such concepts for mass use. Additionally, as the pendulum swings from technological solutions towards the citizen’s experiences, the variations in different countries’ political and cultural systems will become more pronounced. The old adage that “all politics is local” will be reinforced.But in a Big Data environment, the tendency to average out all those local specificities is magnified by generic technology approaches to complex cultural and contextual problems. Governments should think about and resolve ethical questions in the design of smart cities. City planners should ensure that the technologies deployed do not take away citizens’ privacy and that personal data are not used against them. Smart cities need to be more human, so we’re creating Sims-style virtual worlds Jakarta’s traffic system is one of many facets of the city that could be improved by smart cities technologies, but at what cost? Credit: Vasenka Photography/Flickr, CC BY To improve cities, governments are increasingly promoting the use of technology and data-driven decision-making. They decide how technologies and Big Data are being used or deployed in creating smart cities, with the help of academics who collect and interpret data, design new city ideas and newer technologies for cities. Data harnessed from networked objects that citizens wear or use daily can ease our lives. But it’s possible that the uses of Big Data jeopardise citizens, such as in the scenarios we present below. 1. Longer commute for low-class workersImagine this: A traffic system manages a city’s rush hour, handling thousands of traffic lights, public transport commutes and pedestrian signals. Meanwhile, an AI system uses real-time data drawn from hundreds of thousands of sensors on vehicles and buses. With help from infrastructure like light poles, the optimal flow of traffic is calculated based on the number of vehicles and people in the system. Reducing commute times and improving productivity is the stated end goal of city governments. Who could argue with that?But linking traffic data, geographic data and economic performance creates another scenario. If the system increases economic performance, is it any wonder it prioritises higher-paying jobs linked to more expensive suburbs neighbouring the city? Low-paid commuters contribute less financially to a city’s economy, so a highly paid executive getting a quicker ride to work makes brutal sense. But the system introduces a bias: public transport suddenly takes a little longer for a clerical worker.2. Park bench meter?The humble park bench presents another ethical dilemma for city planners. We’ve been paying for car parking in cities for decades. Now that we can live-track people in fine detail, the possibility of micro-charging for public amenities creates an opportunity for new revenue streams.Think about paying a few cents for time spent resting on a park bench – a parking meter for people. This obviously discourages the positive attributes of city living for avid park users. Yet, as an example of “data-driven” governance, it plausibly shines a light on the already feasible potential for economic disparity.3. Health and the consent of citizensBig Data can also be used to inform city design and planning to reduce health disparities. Public surveillance systems can connect geo-data with health services data to attend to populations that need urgent help. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
Explore further The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders revealed the news to coincide with its annual meeting in central London.Car investment plunged to £347.3 million ($461 million, 395 million euros) in the first six months of 2018, compared with £647.4 million in the same part of 2017, according to SMMT data.The organisation warned that new investment projects were being hindered by uncertainty over the government’s ongoing Brexit negotiations with Brussels.”The SMMT today called for swifter progress on Brexit and a deal that, as a minimum, maintains customs union membership and delivers single market benefits,” it said in a statement.”With investment slowing and time running out, negotiators must get on with the job of agreeing a deal that will put an end to uncertainty and prioritise the needs of the automotive sector.” Investment in Britain’s automotive sector collapsed by almost half in the first six months of the year, impacted by Brexit uncertainty, industry data shows Investment in UK automotive sector plunges by a third © 2018 AFP Citation: UK car sector investment collapses on Brexit impact: industry data (2018, June 26) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-uk-car-sector-investment-collapses.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Investment in Britain’s automotive sector collapsed by almost half in the first six months of the year, impacted by Brexit uncertainty, industry data showed Tuesday.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Had I trusted my airspeed sensor, I would have pushed the plane’s nose down in an attempt to regain speed, and possibly put too much strain on the aircraft’s frame, or gotten dangerously close to the ground. But even small aircraft are packed with sensors: While worried about my airspeed, I noticed that my plane was staying at the same altitude, the engine was generating the same amount of power, the wings were meeting the air at a constant angle and I was still moving over the ground at the same speed I had been before the airspeed allegedly dropped.So instead of overstressing and potentially crashing my plane, I was able to fix the problematic sensor and continue my flight without further incident. As a result, I started investigating how computers can use data from different aircraft sensors to help pilots understand whether there’s a real emergency happening, or something much less severe.Boeing’s response to its crashes has included designing a software update that will rely on two sensors instead of one. That may not be enough. The angle of attack describes how the wings meet the oncoming air. Credit: J Doug McLean/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA A test with real dataWe tested our computer program with real data from the 2009 crash of Air France Flight 447. The post-crash investigation revealed that three different pitot tubes froze up, delivering an erroneous airspeed reading and triggering a chain of events ending in the plane plunging into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 228 passengers and crew.The flight data showed that when the pitot tubes froze, they suddenly stopped registering airspeed as 480 knots, and instead reported the plane was going through the air at 180 knots – so slow the autopilot turned itself off and alerted the human pilots there was a problem.But the onboard GPS recorded that the plane was traveling across the ground at 490 knots. And computer models of weather indicated the wind was coming from the rear of the plane at about 10 knots.When we fed those data to our computer system, it detected that the pitot tubes had failed, and estimated the plane’s real airspeed within five seconds. It also detected when the pitot tubes thawed again, about 40 seconds after they froze, and was able to confirm that their readings were again reliable. When one sensor fails, other equipment can provide data to detect the failure and even estimate values for the failing sensor. A different sort of testWe also used our system to identify what happened to Tuninter Flight 1153, which ditched into the Mediterranean Sea in 2005 on its way from Italy to Tunisia, killing 16 of the 39 people aboard.After the accident, the investigation revealed that maintenance workers had mistakenly installed the wrong fuel quantity indicator on the plane, so it reported 2,700 kg of fuel was in the tanks, when the plane was really carrying only 550 kg. Human pilots didn’t notice the error, and the plane ran out of fuel.Fuel is heavy, though, and its weight affects the performance of an aircraft. A plane with too little fuel would have handled differently than one with the right amount. To calculate whether the plane was behaving as it should, with the right amount of fuel on board, we used the aerodynamic mathematical relationship between airspeed and lift. When a plane is in level flight, lift equals weight. Everything else being the same, a heavier plane should have been going slower than the Tuninter plane was. Our program models only cruise phases of flight, in which the plane is in steady, level flight – not accelerating or changing altitude. But it would have been sufficient to detect that the plane was too light and alert the pilots, who could have turned around or landed elsewhere to refuel. Adding information about other phases of flight could improve the system’s accuracy and responsiveness. Using information on ground speed and the current wind conditions, a computer can estimate the plane’s airspeed. Credit: Shigeru Imai and Carlos Varela, CC BY-ND Provided by The Conversation Ethiopian Airlines crash: What is the MCAS system on the Boeing 737 Max 8? A Cessna 182 in flight. Credit: Rob Hodgkins/Flickr, CC BY-SA Planes have many sensors, supplying all kinds of useful data. Credit: vaalaa/Shutterstock.com Citation: Too many airplane systems rely on too few sensors (2019, April 8) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-airplane-sensors.html Credit: The Conversation Cross-checking sensor dataAs a plane defies gravity, aerodynamic principles expressed as mathematical formulas govern its flight. Most of an aircraft’s sensors are intended to monitor elements of those formulas, to reassure pilots that everything is as it should be – or to alert them that something has gone wrong.My team developed a computer system that looks at information from many sensors, comparing their readings to each other and to the relevant mathematical formulas. This system can detect inconsistent data, indicate which sensors most likely failed and, in certain circumstances, use other data to estimate the correct values that these sensors should be delivering.For instance, my Cessna encountered problems when the primary airspeed sensor, called a “pitot tube,” froze in cold air. Other sensors on board gather related information: GPS receivers measure how quickly the aircraft is covering ground. Wind speed data is available from computer models that forecast weather prior to the flight. Onboard computers can calculate an estimated airspeed by combining GPS data with information on the wind speed and direction. Better stillAs my team continues to develop flight data analysis software, we’re also working on supplying it with better data. One potential source could be letting airplanes communicate directly with each other about weather and wind conditions in specific locations at particular altitudes. We are also working on methods to precisely describe safe operating conditions for flight software that relies on sensor data.Sensors do fail, but even when that happens, automated systems can be safer and more efficient than human pilots. As flight becomes more automated and increasingly reliant on sensors, it is imperative that flight systems cross-check data from different sensor types, to safeguard against otherwise potentially fatal sensor faults. Explore further The apparent connection between fatal airplane crashes in Indonesia and Ethiopia centers around the failure of a single sensor. I know what that’s like: A few years ago, while I was flying a Cessna 182-RG from Albany, New York, to Fort Meade, Maryland, my airspeed indicator showed that I was flying at a speed so slow that my plane was at risk of no longer generating enough lift to stay in the air. What about the Boeing 737 Max 8 crashes?The full range of data about Lion Air 610 and Ethiopian Airlines 302 is not yet available to the public, but early reports suggest there was a problem with one of the angle-of-attack sensors. My research team developed a method to check that device’s accuracy based on the plane’s airspeed.We used aerodynamics and a flight simulator to measure how variations in the angle of attack – the steepness with which the wings meet the oncoming air – changed the horizontal and vertical speed of a Cessna 172. The data were consistent with the performance of an actual Cessna 172 in flight. Using our model and system, we can distinguish between an actual emergency – a dangerously high angle of attack – and a failing sensor providing erroneous data.The actual numbers for a Boeing 737 Max 8 would be different, of course, but the principle is still the same, using the mathematical relationship between angle of attack and airspeed to double-check each other, and to identify faulty sensors. If the computer’s estimated airspeed agrees with the sensor readings, most likely everything is fine. If they disagree, then something is wrong – but what? It turns out that these calculations disagree in different ways, depending on which one – or more – of the GPS, wind data or airspeed sensors is wrong. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.
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