Senate Rejects Special Session

first_imgThe Senate, often called the Upper House of the Legislature, has rejected a call to assemble for yet another Extraordinary Session by President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf through a ‘mere letter or communication,’ arguing that it is unconstitutional. The Senate, through its Secretariat, said in accordance with the 1986 Constitution there can only be an Extraordinary Session if the President issues a ‘Proclamation’ which she has the power to do under Article 32b of the Constitution.The Secretary of the Senate, Nanborlor T. Singbe, in an exclusive interview with the Daily Observer on Saturday, clarified that the Legislature can only produce a“Receipt of Certificate for Extension” when it is still in session but cannot when it has already adjourned – meaning the Legislature can only cut their break and return to Capitol Hill through a ‘Proclamation from the President’ after 48 hours of a formal letter of request for a special session.Article 32b states: “The President shall, on his own initiative or upon receipt of a certificate signed by at least one-fourth of the total membership of each House, and by proclamation, extend a regular session of the Legislature beyond the date for adjournment or call a special extraordinary session of that body to discuss or act upon matters of national emergency and concern. When the extension or call is at the request of the Legislature, the proclamation shall be issued not later than forty-eight hours after receipt of the certificate by the President.” “As far as we are concerned,” Singbe said, “there is no extraordinary session – constitutionally, when we are adjourned we cannot be called back to work through a receipt of certificate of extension but rather through a proclamation.” Singbe’s clarity on the Secretariat’s position on the Special Session is against widespread speculation that the Senate is ignoring the President’s request for the return of the Legislature to enact several bills in order to keep the economy on an even keel.Meanwhile, reports said the House of Representatives has already obtained signatures from over one-quarter of its members, as required to produce a “Receipt of Certificate for Extension.” However, their willingness to indulge the President could not be legally enacted if the Senate does not concur to legitimize their second extraordinary session.There would be no Special Session if the Senate maintains its position except the President rewrites a letter of request for the special session and issues a proclamation within 48 hours.Article 29 of the Constitution says “The legislative power of the Republic shall be vested in the Legislature of Liberia which shall consist of two separate houses: A Senate and a House of Representatives, both of which must pass on all legislation.”Article 40 states that one house can open or adjourn for more than five days without the consent of the other and both Houses shall always sit in the same city.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Mashramani events to be taken countrywide

first_imgThe Social Cohesion Ministry plans to take the 2018 Mashramani events countrywide. Residents stretching from Regions Two to Nine will for the first time witness some of the major Mashramani activities hosted by central government; aside from what is usually undertaken by the regional authorities.This was disclosed by Mashramani Coordinator Andrew Tyndall and Director of Culture, Tamika Boatswain.Tyndall said, “This year you would see that a decision has been made to have some of those activities decentralised.”Director of Culture, Tamika Boatswain and Mashramani Coordinator Andrew TyndallHe further added that “a lot of the events on the national calendar, people will now have an opportunity in addition to what the regions plan, to see these activities within their regions”.Culture Director Boatswain said this was the first time that the Ministry was hosting Mash activities usually held in Georgetown in the various regions. Boatswain pointed out that the idea was receiving tremendous support.“The regions have been calling asking for the activities; they have been very insistent in us taking some of our activities there and we welcome it because it gives us a chance to expose our artistes to new audiences and new followings.”Come next year, Boatswain said that Region One would also be included in the activities.Some of the events slated to be held in the various regions include a steel pan concert in Regions Eight, Seven and Nine; calypso semi-finals in Region Seven; and Chutney Finals in Region Three.The theme for this year’s celebration is “Let’s Cooperate and Celebrate Republic 48.”Mashramani is an Amerindian word which means celebration after hard work. The festival was introduced following Guyana gaining republican status on February 23, 1970. (DPI)last_img read more

Huskies Player of the Week: Dawson Phillips

first_imgWhat music do you like?Dawson: “More Techno, I guess, a couple of songs and Rock and Roll, I guess.”What’s your favourite food?Dawson: “I’m going to go with tacos on this one, I think.”What do you hope for the future?Dawson: “I can stay around with this team for future generations and maybe bring back another championship for the guys and the town.” How long have you been with the Huskies?Dawson: “This is my first year. I’m the rookie of the season, so it’s a big step for me.”What position do you play?Dawson: “I’m forward, I go back from winger to centre.”Advertisement How would you describe your style of play?Dawson: “I get in there, grind it out, dump it in, get the first line boys, get some energy going and, yeah, that’s my role basically.”Favourite moment with the Huskies?Dawson: “The guys are great. You know, after the games they’re so supportive and during the games they are. I just love being around the team anytime I can and it’s a great organization.”AdvertisementFavourite hockey team?Dawson: “Vancouver Canucks is my dad’s favourite team and I’m Just going to stay with it too.”Favourite player?Dawson: “That’s a tough one, I don’t really have a favourite player but I sure do like Bo Horvat.”Advertisementcenter_img FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – This week’s Huskies Player of the Week is #16 forward Dawson Phillips.Each week, a different player from the Huskies will be interviewed.As part of a weekly feature, Dawson was met at the rink to talk about himself and his team effort.- Advertisement -Dawson Phillips Facts:Age: 18Height: 5′ 9″Weight: 170 lbs.Shoots: LeftHometown: Fort St. John, B.C.last_img read more

Christmas tree recycling program on Saturday

first_img‘Tis the season to get rid of that Christmas tree. Once again, the City of Fort St. John is making it easier, and more environmentally friendly, to dispose of the festive trees.On Saturday, January 9th, members from the North Peace Secondary School Seeds of Learning group and the North Peace Gymnastics Club will be collecting any trees that are placed on the curb. – Advertisement -The city will provide both clubs an honorarium in return for collecting the trees. Collection lasts from 10:00 a.m. until 4:00 p.m. Trees should be free of all decorations, tinsel and plastic bags.Alternatively, residents have the option of dropping their Christmas trees off at the City’s Snow Removal Dump Site, located at 79th Avenue and 93rd Street beside DGS Astro Paving.Advertisement The Christmas trees that are collected will be chipped and used for the summer mulching and composting programs.last_img read more

Bolt makes football debut, tires quickly

first_img0Shares0000Usain Bolt tired quickly in his football debut for Australian club Central Coast Mariners © AFP / Andrew MurrayGosford, Australia, Aug 31 – Sprint king Usain Bolt fulfilled a boyhood dream Friday in making his much-anticipated football debut, exciting fans but tiring quickly in a 20-minute cameo for Australia’s Central Coast Mariners.The Jamaican superstar, a huge Manchester United fan, has been handed a chance to train with the A-League side for an indefinite period in a bid to prove he has what it takes to earn a professional playing contract. His arrival has generated a massive buzz at the club’s base in Gosford, 75 kilometres (47 miles) north of Sydney, and some 10,000 people packed the Central Coast Stadium — a virtually unprecedented turnout for a pre-season game.It wasn’t quite Old Trafford but there was a lively atmosphere with a brass band on hand to get the crowd going.“It’s a wonderful moment to play at a high level, in professional football,” Bolt said after the Mariners beat an amateur side 6-1.“It was good, it was what I expected. The crowd gave me a big ovation which I really appreciated. I was a little bit nervous but as soon as I got on the field the nerves went.”After only a handful of training sessions since arriving last week, the fastest man on earth watched avidly from the bench as the Mariners began dismantling the Central Coast select side.He didn’t have long to wait to celebrate with his team getting on the scoresheet barely 20 seconds after kick off thanks to a sweet strike by Jack Clisby from the edge of the box.They were 5-0 up at a half-time and a massacre seemed imminent, but the part-timers battled hard in the second half.The eight-time Olympic champion wore gloves and appeared relaxed, despite his nerves, as he followed the match intently.On a chilly night, he stayed warm on the sidelines by stretching and jogging with the 32-year-old happily giving the thumbs up and high-fives to fans.– Get up to speed –The 100 metres and 200m world record holder made his entrance after 71 minutes © AFP / Andrew MurrayWearing the number 95 shirt in a nod to his 100m world record time, he finally made his entrance after 71 minutes to huge cheers from the crowd and fireworks.Starting on the left wing, he fluffed his first touch, making a run on the inside only for the through ball to hit him on the heel. He got himself in the box soon after but a cross whipped in from the left went over his head.Playing more centrally he didn’t getting much of a look in, jumping for another cross that again sailed high.His best touch came 10 minutes after coming on when he controlled a bobbling ball with his right foot, rode a challenge and laid it off with his left foot.Before the game Bolt admitted he was not match fit and pouring with sweat he tired quickly before a late flurry, narrowly failing to get on the end of a low cross after a sprint into the box, and then having a shot blocked.“I wish I had more touches but I’m not fit yet,” he said. “I’ve just got to put in the work, get up to speed and I’m looking forward to a great season.”Bolt, who retired from athletics last year, has previously tried out with clubs in Germany, South Africa and Norway to no avail, with the Mariners hoping to turn him into A-League material for when the season starts in late October.Former Australian international Robbie Slater, who was watching the game, said he still had plenty of work to do.“He was short of a gallop when it comes to match fitness,” he said. “He made some nice little runs, but obviously he needs to learn some more about when he should make the runs and where. He should also have more confidence to go and get the ball.“But look, it’s a special moment for him.”0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

FA charges announced for Jose Mourinho-Marco Ianni touchline incident

first_imgChelsea assistant Marco Ianni has been charged by the FA after goading Manchester United manager Jose Mourinho during the sides’ 2-2 draw on Saturday.Despite reacting angrily to the taunt and having to be restrained, the Portuguese boss has escaped punishment, but instead been “formally reminded of his responsibilities” by the FA. Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars REVEALED 2 Barkley slammed the ball home in the sixth minute of stoppage time Where every Premier League club needs to strengthen in January Latest Chelsea News Redknapp calls Son ‘petulant’, but Holloway says red card for Rudiger kick was ‘soft’ punished Ross Barkley scored an equaliser six minutes into injury to salvage a point for the Blues in the Premier League clash, prompting ugly scenes on the touchline.Ianni ran past Mourinho in the opposition dugout and twice made motions to celebrate in front of the Red Devils’ boss.The ex-Chelsea manager then leapt up to confront him, but was held back by security. Lampard appears to aim dig at Mourinho for handling of Salah and De Bruyne at Chelsea Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? Tottenham issue immediate ban to supporter who threw cup at Kepa gameday cracker tense OFF Mourinho shook hands with current Blues head coach Maurizio Sarri when the final whistle eventually came, but was then jeered by the home supporters and replied by holding up three fingers, representing the three league titles he won as manager of the club.United were seconds away from a huge win after Anthony Martial’s second-half brace cancelled out Antonio Rudiger’s opening header.But Barkley equalised at the death to salvage Sarri’s unbeaten record and deny Man United a crucial comeback win. JIBE targets REAL DEAL Ianni rattled Mourinho as he celebrated the late Chelsea goal REVEALED Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT shining Real Madrid ‘offer’ Isco to Chelsea in bid to ‘make room’ for Tottenham star 2 Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won The FA statement read: “Chelsea coach Marco Ianni has been charged following the game against Manchester United on Saturday.“It is alleged that his behaviour in the 96th minute constituted improper conduct. He has until 6pm on Thursday 25 October 2018 to respond to the charge.“In relation to this incident, Jose Mourinho has been formally reminded of his responsibilities, whilst both clubs have received similar official reminders in terms of the behaviour expected of their staff and players at all times whilst in the technical area.”last_img read more

UPL: Police FC picks first point in draw with Mbarara City FC

first_imgAction between Police FC and Mbarara City FC on Saturday. (PHOTOS/Police FC)Uganda Premier League Police FC 0-0 Mbarara City FCMandela National Stadium, Namboole Saturday, 07-09-2019NAMBOOLE – Police FC registered their first point of the season following a 0-0 draw at home to Mbarara City FC on Saturday afternoon.The Cops came into the game bottom of the pile with a negative three (-3) points tally to their name but managed to hold on to something in the end.In the game played at the Mandela National Stadium in Namboole instead of Kabaka Kyabaggu in Wakissha, the Cops matched Mbarara toe to toe even without head coach Abdallah Mubiru who is in Kenya with the senior men’s football national team.Their best chance in the game fell to Samson Kigozi who headed wide a Ben Ocen cross.Mubaraka Nsubuga was gifted space just inside the area but the former Express FC winger shot over.That was as close as the Cops got to scoring with Mbarara City asking all the other questions.Mbarara had a chance to open the scoring but Ibrahim Orit made a mess of Paul Mucureezi’s pass, seeing his goal bound effort cleared off the line by Joseph Ssentume.Mucureezi then provided for Brian Ahebwa but the striker headed wide of the target.Police have endured a frustrating start to the season as they were docked three points for failing to turn-up for thwir opening game away to Onduparaka on match-day one.They then went on to lose 2-0 to Bul this past Wednesday.Police FC lost to Bul FC on Wednesday.The point earned on Saturday now sees the cops move to -2 and are understood to still be contesting the game lost to Onduparaka by forfeiture.For Mbarara, they now move to four points having beaten Maroons 3-0 on opening day and then losing 3-1 to Villa this past Wednesday.In their next fixtures, Police will face SC Villa in a night game on Tuesday while Mbarara host Express FC at Luzira.Starting teamsPolice FCHilary Jomi,Tonny Kiwalazi, Arafat Galiwango, Joseph Sentume, Henry Katongole, Samuel Kayongo, Ben Ocen, Yusuf Ssozi, Mubaraka Nsubuga, Timothy Oyamo, Samson KigoziMbarara City FCTom Ikara, Ronald Otti, Hilary Mukundane, Zaidi Byekwaso, Orit Ibrahim, Paul Mucereezi, Ivan Eyam, Brian Aheebwa, Pistis Balenge, Swalik Bebe Ssegujja, Jasper Aheebwa.Comments Tags: abdallah mubiruBrian AhebwaIbrahim Oritmbarara city fcMubarak NsubugaPaul Mucureezipolice fctoplast_img read more

DD Motoring: Electric Leaf runs out of road!

first_imgOver this St. Patricks weekend while most were celebrating with our famous national Shamrock, our motoring columnist Brian McDaid was celebrating the success of a leaf of a different type, that of the all-electric car the Nissan Leaf and his unique journey.Survey Survey Survey I’m getting a bit fed up with surveys of what people think of electric cars that never have sat behind the wheel, so in roaming reporter mode, I went in search of real people that actually own and drive all-electric cars.To do this, Inishowen Motor kindly supplied us with the late 191 Nissan Leaf for the Bank Holiday weekend.The Nissan Leaf that I drove was the latest 40 KW version with a range of 280kms between recharges.And with that limited piece of info, a fully charged Nissan Leaf and an app installed from the ESB on my phone, I was on my way. Following footstepsI headed in the direction of Inishowen to start my journey. I did this to follow in my father’s footsteps as he was the first person to represent the ESB to put the pegs in the ground for the locations to place the poles that would carry electricity to this peninsula of Donegal for the first time in the mid-1950s.I wonder what he would think now if he was about a car was able to make a journey to Letterkenny and back on a single charge.Starting up in Malin Head and making my way over Glengad, I took advantage of the steep hill into Malin Town to harvest power through the different types braking on the car that recharges the batteries.My app let me know that a basic public charger was located in Carndonagh.And even though I didn’t need it, the knowledge that it was there help to build my confidence in these all-electric cars or (EVs as they are known). At the startThere is always someone visiting Malin Head no matter when you drive there, and that was the case the day that I arrived and because the car has signage in saying it was 100% Electric it wasn’t long before the sightseeing German tourists were overlooking around the Nissan.The Nissan Leaf down at the waters edge at Malin Head before departing on the journey at the weekend. Photo Brian McDaid.Donegal at the start of our journey from Malin Head to Mizen in the Electric Nissan Leaf. Photo Brian McDaid.After a few selfies, the journey proper began.Lily’s in Malin On my way through Malin, I stopped off at lily’s where my late father would have stayed in digs there when he was pegging out where the first electricity lines for the ESB and thought of stories he told about all the great people he got to know around that area.The White Paddy’s, Hudi Dykes, Harvey Stewart, Willie Joe McClean, Paddy Logue to name but a few and not forgetting the Henrys long before they were a household name as famous singers.Park up outside Lily’s in Malin on it electric journey from Malin Head to Mizen. Photo Brian McDaidToday its another member of the Henry family from, Seamus “Henry” Mc Laughlin from Malin who supplied us with this electric Leaf from his Nissan Agency based in Malin and in Drumkeen to embark on this journey.SnowPlanning the journey is a priority when considering an electric car.Armed with a great onboard navigation system on the Nissan I also downloaded an app from the ESB who are the providers of the public charging locations. What we didn’t plan for was snow which we were greeted by on the morning we set off.Snow in Donegal at the start of our journey from Malin Head to Mizen in the Electric Nissan Leaf. Photo Brian McDaid.If anything the snow just added to the adventure which the Nissan ploughed its way through with ease.A quick top-up of the battery at Tobin’s in Letterkenny on their quick charging unit to the same amount of time as it took for us to get something to eat in their deli.Range anxietyAt the start of this journey, I must admit that I did worry a little about running out of battery power so I found myself topping up the batteries a lot even when it was over 60% mainly because I wasn’t really trusting the navigation system or the app on my phone.The Nissan Leaf parked up at the charging point in Bantry Co. Cork with some fine local artwork keeping an eye on the environment Photo Brian McDaidThe Nissan at one of the Charging points in Letterkenny Photo Brian McDaid.A top up at Londas in Grange, Co. Sligo and a conversation with a fellow Nissan Leaf owner who was charging his 191 Leaf there put a lot of my worries to rest.ConfidenceWith the valuable first-hand knowledge passed on from this fellow electric motorist, I was on my journey proper and tested the range of the car as I travelled through Co Sligo, Mayo and Galway before topping up before I headed into Co. Clare.A view of the driving range and the locations of charging point on the onboard navigation system. Photo Brian McDaid.Darkness was falling as I joined the motorway to head for Limerick City and then passed under the river Shannon.By this time, I realised that the quick chargers were the best option to keep moving so now I was heading to Newcastle West for my next charging point.Elder LeafIn Newcastle West, I met another electric car owner at the charging point who had one of the earlier models which had a lower range.He told me that buying an electric car was one of the best decisions he ever made.He done a lot of research before his family car of choice was going to be electric and has never looked back.If you are prepared to be part of the team and make adjustments to planned things out electric cars are a brilliant idea both for a family and for the bigger picture.With more valuable advice including the fact that most of the electric charging points are available 24-hours, my talk with this man built my confidence for the road ahead.In Killarney, I decided to top up the batteries for this leg of the journey ahead where I had to make a change of plan and divert from heading up over Molls Gap because of the freezing temperatures that were flashing up on the dash of the Nissan.So, I headed inland a bit and eventually ended up in Bantry at 2am in the morning.Slow FoxtrotIn Bantry, all that was available was a slower charger so I plugged in and took a much-needed rest.Early on Sunday morning, I headed out of Bantry in search of the final part of the journey, which didn’t have an electric charging point on its peninsula.The road looped back and forth along with the most southern part of Ireland and I was lucky enough to see the sunrise shortly after 7am.Then another couple of kilometres down the way and the road came to a complete end at the visitors’ centre at Mizen Head.We had made it from Malin Head, the most Northerly Point in Ireland to Mizen Head the most southern point.The Leaf never failed us or did the charging points along the journey and I never ran out of electricity – we just run out of road!CelebrationsA couple of photos of the Nissan leaf beside the the big reg Buoy and the centre and a couple of photos of the the car on the finishing line and beside the propeller of the 1909 steamship that went aground in heavy seas and the event was celebrated with a makeshift breakfast which consisted of a half carton of Centra’s own milk and a few hot cross buns.The Nissan Leaf pictured at Mizen Head at the weekend after completing the journey from Malin Head in Co Donegal. Photo Brian McDaid.The Nissan did well on its journey.Starting all over againIt wasn’t long to the car was turned around in the carpark on the visitor centre and the same journey had to be repeated again in order to get the Nissan Leaf back to Donegal.The journey down from Donegal had learned us a lot about electric cars and the network of charging points in Ireland.Then on the way down the car was driven very easy and the E-braking was used most of the time to harvest as much energy back into the batteries.The Nissan making it way through Molls Gap on the return journey at the weekend. Photo Brian McDaid.One the way home we pushed the car on a bit were able to gauge the charging points better sometimes even missing every second one.We managed to include a trip through the beautiful Molls Gap on the way home and were soon through Killarney and Newcastle West an on to the motorway through Limerick and under the river Shannon again.Back to the futureWhen we arrived at our charging point in Ennis a beautiful 4×4 Tesla was charging in the bay where I stopped and soon I got chatting to the owner of this beautiful piece of engineering as we waited for power to charge both our batteries.I didn’t want to ask him how much his Tesla cost but I Google the price of it when I was sitting in my own wee Nissan Leaf.The futuristic-looking Tesla 4×4 sitting at the electric charging point in Ennis at the weekend. Photo Brian McDaid.OMG- €200,000 for the top of the range of this model Tesla which was beautiful and completely silent as it sat in the charging bay with it back to the future looking gull wing doors popped up to the opening position.GasAs I made my way up through the middle of Ireland, a stop off in Ballindine had a funny experience from someone who seemed to be enjoying the St. Patricks Day celebrations but was trying to make out they were a lot soberer than they actually were.Standing out in the carpark of the filling station away from all harm and enjoying a smoke they spotted me plugging the car in above the front bumper.Heading out of Bantry before sunrise to get to the end of the road in Mizen Head. Photo Brian McDaid.Stepping over and giving me a friendly wave they proceeded to the charging point to have a closer look at it.They carefully held their lite cigarette at arms length away from the unit thinking I was filling the car with gas or something other than petrol.HomecomingBefore I knew it I was crossing the border from Leitrim back into Co Donegal on St Patrick’s Day eve, less than 24 hrs the day before.We were now on the home straight and our journey would end in Letterkenny.1,200 km on free light!Summing up our Journey over the St Patricks Day weekend from Malin to Mizen by electric car.This was both exciting and very enjoyable and possibly will never be done again the way we did it.Our Journey from the tip-top of Ireland in the North of Co Donegal to the most southerly point of Ireland, Mizen Head in Co Cork, which is 599 Kms one way and then back, cost us zero euros and zeros cents.This is because from the start of the introduction of electric cars in Ireland the network of public charging points were free of charge.Catching the sun rise in Mizen Head after a drive from the other end of Ireland Photo Brian McDaid.This may change in the future but even charging the car from a power point at home cost a lot less than the cost to run an engine powered car of any type.The Nissan Leaf has been the bench for electric car and did not disappoint us on our journey over the weekend.At some stages of the journey, I have to remind myself that I was still driving an electric car as it is so quick away from a set of traffic lights especially when you are in the wrong lane and want to change over while the driver beside you is struggling for gears.The drivers that I met were all a wealth of information on the cars. some of them said they could do with more quick charging points in their area.One off the bucket listMizen to Malin has been on my bucket list for the longest time since the day. My father and the four of us boys joined his fellow ESB workmate, Michael Casey for a couple on miles on his walk from Malin Head to Mizen Head back in the 1970s.Journeys end in Mizen Head after driving the Nissan Leaf from the top of Ireland to the bottom to Mizen Head on St Patrick’s weekend.Last weekend I got my chance to drive from one end of Ireland to the other in the latest type of motoring electric cars in what may become the future in motoring for everyone.Happy Motoring Folks.DD Motoring: Electric Leaf runs out of road! was last modified: March 20th, 2019 by Brian McDaidShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

News in brief: Van Ginkel’s title win, Chelsea & Fulham youngsters shine for England, Judge wins awards

first_imgMarco van GinkelThe on-loan Chelsea midfielder celebrated winning the Dutch title with PSV Eindhoven on Sunday. The 23-year-old played in central midfield as PSV won 3-1 at PEC Zwolle, while Ajax – who started the final day top of the table – could only draw.ChelseaThe deadline for Blues fans wishing to renew season tickets for the 2016-17 campaign is Friday (13 May) at 5pm.If after the deadline for renewals passes there are season tickets available, they will be offered for purchase to members on a loyalty-point basis using the current season’s points.Alan JudgeThe injured midfielder has won Brentford’s players’ player of the year and supporters’ player of the year awards.Judge scored 14 goals in 39 games for the Bees this season prior to breaking his leg against Ipswich last month. Liverpool loanee Sergi Canos won the goal of the season prize for his strike at Reading.Judge has been outstanding for Brentford this seasonFulhamGeorge Williams and Jazz Richards have both been named in the 28-man Wales squad for their pre-European Championship training camp in Portugal.Trevor ChalobahThe Chelsea teenager captained England to a 2-0 win over France in their second match of the European Under-17 Championships.Blues team-mates Jared Thompson, Dujon Sterling and Mason Mount also started, as did Fulham pair Ryan Sessegnon and Dennis Adeniran.Jay DaSilva and Adetayo EdunChelsea defender Da Silva and Fulham midfielder Edun have both been named in the England Under-18 squad for two matches against South Korea next month.The two sides will meet at the Icheon City Stadium, just outside of the Korean capital Seoul, on Friday 3 June and Sunday 5 June.Football League Family Excellence AwardBrentford, Fulham and QPR are among the 44 Football League clubs to have received the award, which recognises the experienced provided by clubs for young fans and families.During each season, clubs are independently assessed to see if they meet a benchmark standard, with more than 60 per cent successful this year.WealdstoneThe National League South club will host a Premier League legends side in pre-season after winning a competition to find non-League football’s best goal celebration.The Stones won most votes ahead of league rivals Chelmsford, Truro and Whitehawk, and National League side Torquay, and have scooped a £10,000 cash prize for the ‘dentist chair’ impersonation by fan Gordon Hill, known as the Wealdstone Raider.More information on the match, which has provisionally been organised for 17 July, will be revealed nearer the time, but the club believe it could help raise a further £40,000.Kyle SincklerThe uncapped Harlequins prop has been named in a 26-man England squad for a training camp at Brighton College between 17 and 19 May. Danny Care, Chris Robshaw, Joe Marler, Mike Brown, Marland Yarde and Jack Clifford are also involved.MiddlesexThe second XI shared the spoils in two T20s played against Glamorgan. Middlesex won the first by 43 runs, thanks in part to half-centuries from Max Holden (54) and Ryan Higgins (52).In the second match, Nathan Sowter took 3-31 but Glamorgan won by 11 runs on the Duckworth-Lewis Method, after rain brought play to an early finish.John WarrThe former Middlesex captain, known as JJ Warr, has died at the age of 88.Ealing-born Warr played 260 first-class matches for the county between 1949 and 1960, scoring 2,744 runs and taking 703 wickets.His best bowling figures were 9-65, against Kent at Lord’s in August 1956, and he played two Tests for England in Australia in 1951. He went on to become a trustee of the MCC and president in 1987-88, and flags at Lord’s were flown at half-mast on Monday.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

Complex Eyes of ‘Simple’ Clams Confound Darwin

first_img‘Simple’ Clams Have Eyes that Confound Darwinby Jerry Bergman, PhDDarwin is famous for admitting that the origin of complex structures made him sick: In The Origin of Species, we read:“To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.”[1]Darwin then speculated a thought experiment to imagine a plausible set of events if one thought backward from a vertebrate eye to a simple eye:Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case; and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, should not be considered as subversive of the theory.[2]The problem is, to reason backward to the past is subjective and easy. What is difficult is to reason forward into the future. ‘Thought scenarios’ as Darwin gave are neither proof nor evidence. Darwin assumed that normal “variations” would provide the material required to evolve eye spots into vertebrae eyes. From our modern experimental knowledge, mutations are the only possible source of variations that could do what Darwin proposed; namely, to produce “a perfect and complex eye.” We know today that mutations do not produce, but damage, and damage moves organisms away from Darwin’s imaginative scenario of upward evolutionary progress.No doubt this concern of Darwin issued from his reading of William Paley which he was required to study in Cambridge as a student, and which he admitted he enjoyed reading. As a youth, Darwin was a nominal Christian and accepted much of Paley’s Natural Theology that argued for the existence of God from the evidence of design all around us. In a letter to John Lubbock dated November 22, 1859, Darwin wrote, “I do not think I hardly ever admired a book more than Paley’s Natural Theology. I could almost formerly have said it by heart.”[3] All this soon changed: His Origin of Species book was largely an attempt to refute Paley’s ‘Watchmaker’ analogy. Professor Williams makes it clear thatDarwin attempted to exterminate natural theology by refuting William Paley’s book by that name, which argued from apparent design in nature to a Designer. Darwin built On the Origin of Species based on Paley’s structure and content, but stood his argument on its head. Current biologists aim to complete the slaughter, calling religion a meme that infects us, an epiphenomenal superstition, and a Darwinian adaptation—but religion cannot be all of these things without contradiction.[4]New Research on Clam EyesAside for the problems noted above falsifying Darwin’s rationalization, we now know that so-called simple eyes are not at all simple, but in some ways are more complex than the so-called highest, most evolved, eye type. One review of a new article on scallop eyes concluded their eyes “function similar to telescopes, are even more complex than scientists previously knew.”[5] Scallop is the common name of any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks, also commonly called clams. The scientist added scallops “have up to 200 tiny eyes along the edge of the mantle lining their shells, although scientists still don’t know exactly how they all work together to help the mollusks.” Another researcher added “For over half a century, the multitudinous mirror eyes of the lowly scallop have continuously amazed us with their visual eccentricities. The latest surprise is the mirror itself, which turns out to be an extraordinary optical wonder.”[6]Only three design solutions exist to focus the light entering the eye onto the retina.[7] The most common is a lens, such as used in human eyes, and another very rare solution is a tiny aperture called a pin hole “lens” in which the pin-sized opening bends the light, serving as a crude lens which works the same way as a pinhole camera. An example is the deep-sea cephalopods of the genus Nautilus. The third solution, using mirrors that work like a reflecting telescope, is used in some deep-sea fish and crustaceans, plus the scallop Pecten.Credit: Rachael Norris and Marina Freudzon / Mayscallop (Wikimedia)In scallops, “the remarkable eyes of which have been a continuous source of surprise for decades, this mirror is concave and focuses an image onto an overlying retina by reflection” like a reflecting telescope.[8] A new study, published in Current Biology, showed that the pupils of scallop eyes dilate and contract in response to light levels, just like human eyes.[9] Specifically, their pupils “constrict to ∼60% of their fully dilated areas within several minutes of light exposure.”[10] University of California, Santa Barbara biologist Todd Oakley acknowledged it is  “surprising how much we’re finding out about how complex and how functional these scallop eyes are.”[11] In short, when light enters the scallop eye it firstpasses through the pupil, a lens, two retinas (distal and proximal), and then reaches a mirror made of crystals of guanine at the back of the eye. The curved mirror reflects the light onto the interior surface of the retinas, where neural signals are generated and sent to a small visceral ganglion, or a cluster of nerve cells, whose main job is to control the scallop’s gut and adductor muscle. The structure of a scallop’s eye is similar to the optics systems found in advanced telescopes.[12]The problem is images on the proximal retina are out of focus, which at first appears to be very poor design. A new study found this arrangement was not poor design, but rather ingenious design. The scallop pupils can dilate and contract, changing the size of the pupil opening by about 50 percent. Their eyes lack irises like human eyes. Instead, the cornea cells change shape from thin and flat to tall and long. These contractions also change the cornea’s curvature, indicating the scallop eye changes shape to respond to light to form more crisper images on the proximal retina.Credit: retina is located between the lens and the mirror, suspended a short distance above the mirror. The retina is separated into two layers, a distal layer lying closer to the lens, and a proximal layer, lying closer to the mirror, and “Incredibly, the light-sensitive portions of the photoreceptors in each of these two layers are of two fundamentally different types.”[13] Warrant adds the cellsof the distal layer resemble those found in vertebrates, being constructed of cilia and hyperpolarizing in response to light; those of the proximal layer are instead constructed of microvilli and depolarize in response to light, characteristics typical of invertebrate photoreceptors. The mirror, which is very nearly hemispherical, reflects the light back towards the retina, there focusing an inverted and minified image of the outside world. [14]Thus, the mirror serves as a lens in a system that otherwise looks like the ancient invertebrate borrowed from a modern vertebrate that was not scheduled to evolve until far into the future according to evolutionists. Adaptive mirrors are not the scallop eye’s only wonder. The researchers also determined that scallop eyes have three times as many light-sensitive proteins called opsins in the photoreceptor cells as humans.[15] Some opsins may be expressed in the proximal retina, others in the distal retina. The paper concluded thatwhat remains undisputed is that with their spectrally-tuned concave mirror of tiny guanine crystals and their double-layered retina containing both ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptors, the eye of the scallop is one of nature’s most extraordinary — and curious — optical inventions.[16]The paper then detailed why the visual system was designed this way, producing an eye in so-called primitive lowly clams which evolutionists claim were among the first organisms to have evolved on Earth an estimated 2.3+ billion Darwin years ago, yet are every bit as complex as that in modern humans. (For more on scallop eyes, see Evolution News 5 Dec 2017).More Big Problems for EvolutionOpsins in the retina mediate the conversion of light into electrochemical signals which are sent to the brain for processing. The molecular proteins that translate light into electrical signals vary considerably. Clams, mollusks that live inside two matching cupped shells connected by a hinge, use several eye types, including compound eyes, eyes with multiple visual units, though they differ from the well-known compound eyes used by insects. All of this seemingly unnecessary variety baffles evolutionists. They do not see it as necessary, but as an unnecessary luxury that they assume evolution could not create from survival of-the-fittest mechanisms.Another question, actually, “The big evolutionary question … is, how do these [visual] proteins evolve to sample light? And then, how does it become specified to the different types of light environments that the animals can occur in?”[17] Evolutionists have no idea of the answer, and resort to co-option, the claim that the opsins are being repurposed from some other function within the animal to be used in the eyes. One theory is evolution evolved opsin in response to light-induced stress. Ultraviolet damage causes specific molecular changes that an organism must protect against and the co-option theory speculates, was the beginning of eye evolution!This claim is a pure just-so-story, often a desperate attempt to explain something that is not only unexplainable by evolution, but argues against evolution. Not only does the diversity of eye morphologies and of photoreceptors across animals baffle evolutionists, but the fact that the genes that control eye development are remarkably similar across all life forms with eyes, does as well. The classic example is the Pax6 gene which is critical for both scallop eye as well as mammal eye development. In short, according to Darwinian theory, fifty million years of evolution has, in this case, produced virtually no changes in the gene and its function, and in other cases has produced designs unthought of by evolution until eons later after clams evolved.Humpty Darwin sits on a wall of foam bricks held together by decayed mortar. Cartoon by Brett Miller commissioned for CEH. All rights reserved.References[1][1] Darwin, Charles. 1859. The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle For Life. London, UK: John Murray, p. 159.[2] Williams, Patricia. 2005. “Darwinian Heresies.” The Quarterly Review of Biology, 80:225-226, p. 226..[3] Burkhardt, F. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin,Vol 7. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 388.This is not the first time Darwinians have blundered about what natural selection can do.[4] Williams, 2005, p. 226.[5] Callier, Viviane. 2019. “What Scallops’ Many Eyes Can Teach Us About the Evolution of Vision.” Smithsonian Magazine.[6] Warrant, Eric. J.  2018. “Visual Optics: Remarkable Image-Forming Mirrors in Scallop Eyes.” Current Biology, 28:R254–R277, March 19.[7] Land, M.F. 1965. Image formation by a concave reflector in the eye of the scallop, Pecten maximus. Journal of Physiology, 179: 138-153.[8] Warrant, Eric. J.  2018, p. R262.[9] Miller, Hayley V. Alexandra C.N. Kingston, Yakir L. Gagnon, and Daniel I. Speiser. 2019. The mirror-based eyes of scallops demonstrate a light-evoked pupillary response. Current Biology, 29(9):R313-R314, May 06.[10] Miller, et al. 1919.[11] Callier, 2019.[12] Callier, 2019.[13] Warrant, 2018, p. R262.[14] Warrant, 2018, p. R262.[15] Palmer, B.A., et al. 2017. The image forming mirror in the eye of the scallop. Science, 358: 1172-1175.[16] Warrant, 2018, p. R264.[17] Callier, 2019. Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 1,231 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more